ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE RESEARCH INITIATIVE


Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering

College of Engineering, University of Maine

If you have any question or comment please contact Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor (mohsen.shahinpoor@maine.edu)

UMaine, Biomedical Engineering Initiative


 
 
 
Beating Heart Beating Heart
 


If you wish to receive complimentary samples of polymeric artificial muscles, please contact Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor




-Historic affiliation between The FacioScapuloHumeral(FSH) Muscular Dystrophy Society (http://www.fshsociety.org) and Artificial Muscle Research Institute (AMRI).
The Artificial Muscle Research Institute (AMRI) and The Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSH) Society, (http://www.fshsociety.org) begin a dialog to examine research applications of Artificial Muscle as applied to FSH muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Click HERE for more information.

Historic Seminar at AMRI; presented by PIERRE-GILLES DEGENNES, Nobel Laureate
Click HEREfor more information.
 


Thank you for visiting our site.

To receive complimentary samples of polymeric artificial muscles, please contact Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor, shah@maine.edu or mohsen.shahinpoor@maine.edu

CONTENT
ENJOY THE FOLLOWING VIDEO CLIPS ON ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES:
MysterBony equipped with artificial muscles pedaling an exercycle
Wiggly little flexible robotic finger
Thick muscle moving up under a linearly varying direct voltage to a maximum of 4 volts
Flapping pair of wings-version 1
Flapping pair of wings-version 2
Flapping pair of wings-version 3
Heart-Assist/Organ Compression Device Made With Laminated IPMCs
Space Dust Wiper Made For NASA With IPMC Muscle
Resonant Flying Wings With Artificial Muscle
IPMC Multi-Fingered Hand
Smart IPMC Jelly Fish In Air

Smart IPMC Jelly Fish Rising In Water
IPMC Rising and Resonating Robotic Shovel Muscle
Waving Robotic IPMC Muscle
ThickRobotic IPMC Muscle
Flying Pair of Robotic Wing Muscles-1
Vibrating and Resonating Asymmetric Toy Robotic Muscle
Flying Pair of Robotic Wing Muscle-2
Looping Robotic Muscle-1

Looping Robotic Muscle-2
A Robotic Micro-Gripper Made with IPMC Artificial Muscle For Micro-Organisms Manipulation
World's Smallest Pair of Robotic Fingers Made with IPMC Artificial Muscles
Robotic Muscle for Skeletal Joint Motion
Swimming Biomimetic Robotic Fish Approaching A Wall Under Water
Swimming Biomimetic Robotic Fish Turning
Enjoy the Amazing Dance of This Twisting, Twirling, Turning, Rolling IPMC Muscle and Morphing Antenna
A Bending Liquid Crystal Elastomer Artificial Muscle
A Linear Actuator Type Liquid Crystal Elastomer Artificial Muscle
Dynamics of Ionic Hydraulic Actuation And Water Movement In IPMC Artificial Muscles
Dynamic Thermal Field & Internal Ions And Water Movements In A Membrane Of IPMC Artificial Muscle
Enjoy the Contraction Of This Thick PAN Muscle Lifting A Bottle
Enjoy The Linear Expansion And Contraction Of This PAN Muscle- The Robotic Blob
-Enjoythis mini-heart assist device equipped with a five-fingered hand made with ionic polymeric artificial muscles
-Enjoy this video on linearly contractile liquid crystal elastomer artificial muscle lifting a weight
-Enjoy the underwater maneuvering and swimming and turning of this
biomimetic robotic submarine fish equipped with synthetic muscles that operate in water
-
Enjoy the uncurling and twisting of this snake-1 muscle in air
-<Enjoy the looping and unlooping of this snake-2 muscle in air
-Enjoy this uncurling and twisting snake-3 muscle in air learning not to fall the second time around
-Enjoy the power of this power muscle lifting a quarter 22 times its weight in air.

Using these power muscles we are developing materials whose stiffness can be modulated electrically on the fly.
-Enjoy the unbelievable power of this power muscle lifting 22 times its own weight in air and holding.
-Enjoy the lifting power of this long power stick muscle in air lifting two quarters 42 times its own weight
-Enjoy the lifting power of this long power stick muscle in air lifting three quarters 62 times its own weight

QT-1-Biped Robot

Beating Heart-I

Beating Heart-II



If you want a complimentary copy of any of the following milestone journal papers send an email to
Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor:

243   M. Alahbakhshi*, A. Fallahi*, E. Mohajerani*, M. R. Fathollahi*, F. Afshar Taromi*, and M. Shahinpoor, “High-performance Bi-stage process in reduction of graphene oxide for transparent conductive electrodes”, Optical Materials, Vol. 64, pp: 366-375, 2017.

242   D. Armstrong, B. Najafi, and M. Shahinpoor, “Potential Applications of Smart Multi-Functional Wearable Materials to Gerontology”, Gerontology Journal, accepted for publication, Manuscript No.: 201606007, Published online: January 12, 2017.

241   A. Fallahi*, Y. Bahramzadeh*, E. Tabatabaie*, and M. Shahinpoor, “A Novel Multifunctional Soft Robotic Transducer Made with Poly (Ethylene-co-Methacrylic Acid) Ionomer Metal Nanocomposite”, accepted for publication, Int. Journal of Intelligent Robotics and Applications, Special Issue on Soft Robotics, to appear, 2017.

240   M. Shahinpoor, “Ionic Polymer Metal Composites as Soft Biomimetic Robotic Artificial Muscles”, RSC Smart Materials Series, Number 18, Royal Society of Chemistry Publishers, pp. 341-363, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WF, UK, 2016

239   M. Shahinpoor, “Ionic Polymer Metal Composites as Dexterous Manipulators and Haptic Feedback/Tactile Sensors for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery”, RSC Smart Materials Series, Number 18, Royal Society of Chemistry Publishers, pp. 311-340, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WF, UK, 2016

238   M. Shahinpoor, ”Ionic Polymer Metal Composites as Dexterous Manipulators and Haptic Feedback/Tactile Sensors for Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery”RSC Smart Materials Series, Number 18, Royal Society of Chemistry Publishers, pp. 311-340, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WF, UK (2016)

237   G. Michopoulos, M. Shahinpoor, A. Iliopoulos, ”Multiphysics Modeling of Nonlinear Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Plates”, RSC Smart Materials Series, Number 18, Royal Society of Chemistry Publishers, pp: 285-310, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WF, UK (2016)

236   H. Asanuma, K. Asaka, J. Su, L. Poubel, and M. Shahinpoor, “Smart Contact Oscillations by IPMCs”, Smart Materials and Structures International Journal, Volume 25, Number 2, February 2016, pp. 15015-15-022, (2016)

235   Shahinpoor, ”Ionic Polymer Metal Composites as Soft Biomimetic Robotic Artificial Muscles”RSC Smart Materials Series, Number 18, Royal Society of Chemistry Publishers, pp. 341-363, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WF, UK (2016)

234    P. Bakhtiarpour, A. Parvizi, M. Muller, M. Shahinpoor, O. Marti and M. Amirkhani, An External Disturbance Sensor for Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuator”, Smart Materials and Structures International Journal, Volume 25, Number 1, January 2016,  pp. 15008-15014(7), (2016)

233    A. Fallahi, M. Alahbakhshi, E. Mohajerani, F. Afshar Taromi, A. Mohebbi and M. Shahinpoor, “Cationic Water-Soluble Conjugated Polyelectrolytes/ Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites as Efficient Green Hole Injection Layers in OLEDs”,  J. Phys. Chem. C, Just Accepted Manuscript • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b00863 Publication Date (Web): 20 May 2015 Downloaded from http://pubs.acs.org on May 22, (2015). 

232    H. Derar and M. Shahinpoor, “Recent Patents and Designs on Hip Replacement Prostheses”, Open Biomed Eng J. , vol 9, pp. 92-102, (2015) 

231    A. A. Amiri Moghadam, A. Kouzani, K. Torabi, A. Kaynak and M. Shahinpoor, “Development of a Novel Soft Parallel Robot equipped with Polymeric Artificial Muscles”, Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 24, Number 3, 5017, (2015)

230    M. Shahinpoor and I. Oh, “Selected papers from the 7th. International Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and nano-Bio (BAMN2013)”, Smart Materials and Structures Int. Journal, vol. 23, Number 7,  070301, (2014)

229    A. Fallahi, F. Afshar Taromi, A. Mohebbi, J. D. Yuen and M. Shahinpoor, “A Novel Ambipolar Polymer: From Organic Thin-Film Transistors to Enhanced Air-Stable Blue Light Emitting Diodes”, accepted for publication, Journal of Material Chemistry C, (2014), published online June 6, (2014)

228     M. Shahinpoor and S. Gheshmi, “Robotic Surgery: with Smart Materials, Robotic Structures and Artificial Muscles”, PAN Stanford Publishing, Penthouse Level, Suntec Tower, 8 Temasek Boulevard, Singapore 038988,  August (2014)

227     Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “A Review of Ionic Polymeric Soft Actuators and Sensors”, Int. Journal of Soft Robotics, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 38-52, (2013), Mary-Ann Lieber, Inc. Publishing, New York, USA, (2013)

226     M. Hajiaghamemar, M. Seidi, W. Andrew, Hodge, A. E. Allen, J. St. Pierre, J. A. Long, V. Caccese, M. Shahinpoor, S. Elmer, “Quantifying Functional Improvements Following X-STOP Spacer Procedure for Treatments of Spinal Stenosis: A Case Report”, Proceedings of 2013 New England Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine, Fall 2013 Conference, (2013)

225      M. Shahinpoor, “A Review of Ionic Polymeric Soft Actuators and Sensors”, Int. Journal of Soft Robotics, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 38-52, (2013), Mary-Ann Lieber, Inc. Publishing, New York, USA, (2013)

224      D. Chatterjee, N. Hanumaiah, Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “Actuation and Sensing Studies of a Miniaturized Five Fingered Robotic Hand Made with Ion Polymeric Metal Composite (IPMC)”, Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 740 (2013) pp.: 492-495, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, (2013)

223      M. Shahinpoor, “Chitosan/IPMC Artificial Muscles”, Advances in Science and Technology, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, Vol. 79, pp.: 32-40, (2013)

222      M. Shahinpoor, “Muscular Biopolymers”, Book Chapter in “Topics in Engineered Biomimecry: Biomimetics, Bioinspiration and Bioreplication”, edited by Akhlesh Lakhtakia and Raul-Jose Martin-Palma, Elsevier publishers, Waltham, MA, USA, (2013)

221     R. Glaser, V. Caccese and M. Shahinpoor, “Development of Novel Smart MFR-Gates for Wireless Dynamic Control of Fluid Flow”, Smart Materials and Structures Journal, vol. 22, no.1, (17pp), pp. 1-17, (2013)

220      Atul Tiwari, Ravi B. Srivastava, Rajesh K. Saini, Anil K. Bajpai, Lucia H. Innocentini Mei , Shivani B. Mishra, Ashutosh Tiwari, Ashok Kumar, Mohsen Shahinpoor, Golok B. Nando, Subash C. Kundu, and Avrath Chadha, “Biopolymers: An Indispensable Tool for Biotechnology”, Chapter 1 of “Biotechnology in Biopolymers”,  Editd by Professors Atul Tiwari and Ravi B. Srivastava, iSmithers-Rapra publishers, London, (2012)

219      Mohen Shahinpoor, “Artificial Muscles: Selected Papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio”, in Smart Materials and Structures International Journal, Special Section: Artificial Muscles, Volume 20, Number 12,  pp. 1-3, December 2011.          

218      Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “Modeling of  IPMC Guide Wire Stirrer In Endovascular Surgery”, Chapter 2, Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials, Edited by Lenore Rassmussen,  Springer Publications, New York, Heidelberg,       Dortrecht, London, vol. 20, no. 9, 094011 (7pp), March (2012)

217      M. Shahinpoor, “Biopolymer/Ionic Polymer Composite Artificial Muscles”, Chapter 10 of “Biotechnology in Biopolymers”,  Edited by Professors Atul Tiwari and Ravi B. Srivastava, iSmithers-Rapra publishers, London, (2012)

216      R. Glaser, V. Caccese and M. Shahinpoor, “Shape Monitoring of a Beam   Structure from Measured Strain or Curvature”, Int. Journal of Experimental    Mechanics,  Springer Publishing Company, vol. 51,  pp. 1 -16 , July (2011)
           
215      A.J. McDaid, K.C. Aw, E. Haemmerle, M. Shahinpoor and S.Q. Xie, “ Adaptive Tuning of A 2DOF Controller for Robust Cell Manipulation Using IPMC Actuators”, J. Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 21, 125004, pp. 1-11,  (2011), Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing Ltd., London, UK, (2011)

214      Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Biomimetic Robotic Venus flytrap (Dionaea Muscipula Ellis) Made with Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs)”,  Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, vol. 6,  046004, pp. 1-11, (2011), Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing Ltd., London, UK, (2011)
Special Note: This paper published  in Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, Vol 6, pp046004 (2011), were downloaded 500 times . This was achieved in 97 days from the date of publication. To put this into context, across all IOP journals 3% of articles were accessed over 500 times this year.

213      Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Surgical Correction of Hyperopia, Myopia and Presbyopia Review of Recent Ophthalmological Patents”,  “Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering Journal”, volume 4, pp. 185-195, (2011), Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., Oak Park, IL 60301-0446, USA, (2011)

212      S.D. Dvorak and M. Shahinpoor, “A New Membrane Electrode Assembly for        Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Having a Nanocomposite Catalyst Layer,”  Electrochemical Society (ECS) Transactions, vol. 30, No.1, pp. 77- 82, (2011)

211      Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “Dynamic Curvature Sensing Based On Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) Sensors”, Smart Materials and  Structures Journal,  vol. 20, no. 9, 094011 (7pp), September (2011)

210 R. Glaser, V. Caccese and M. Shahinpoor, “Development of Magnetorheological Fluid Composites with Rigidification Characteristics”, Smart Materials and Structures Journal , vol. 20, no.4,  045018 (16pp), pp. 1-16, (2011)         

209 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Biomimetic Nananosensors and Nanoactuators”, in “Biomimetics and Bioinspired Nanomaterials”, Editor: Professor Challa S.S. R. Kumar, John Wiley and Sons Publishers, Wiley-VCH Verlag, GmnH & Co. KGaA, Boschstrase 12, Weinheim, Germany , vol. 7, Chapter 8, pp. 2830301, (2010)

208 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “A Review of Patents on Implantable Heart-Compression/Assist Devices and Systems”, “Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering Journal” , volume 3, pp. 54-71, (2010), Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., Oak Park, IL 60301-0446, USA, (2010)

207 Alireza Ghaffariyeh, Mohsen Shahinpoor, David Soltanpour and Nazafarin Honarpi-sheh, “Novel Theory for Treatment of Presbyopia: Rejuvenation of Zonular Fibers by Capsular Anterior Annular Peripheral Shrinkage (CAPS)”, IR Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas , Vol. 4, No. 12, pp. 1-4, (2010)

206 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Implantable Heart-Assist and Compression Devices Employing an Active Network of Electrically-Controllable Ionic Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites”, in “Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators”, Editors: Federico Carpi and Elisabeth Smela, John Wiley and Sons Publishers, West Sussex, United Kingdom, Chapter 7, pp. 37-59 (2009)

205 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymeric Conductor Nano Composites (IPCMCs) As Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles”, Journal of Bioinspiration and Biomimetics , Institute of Physics, Bioinsp. Biomim. 3 (2008) 035003 (8pp) (2008-2009).

204 Ron Lumia and Mohsen Shahinpoor, “IPMC Microgripper Research and Development”, Journal of Physics CS , Institute of Physics, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 127 (2008) 012002 (2008-2009)

203 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Recent Advances in Ionic Polymer Metal Nanocomposites As Distributed Biomimetic Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles ”, J. of Physics CS , Institute of Physics , Journal of Physics: Conference Series 127 pp.20-28, (2008-2009)

202 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymeric Conductor Nano Composites (IPCMCs) As Distributed Nanosensors and Nanoactuators ”, Advances in Science and Technology J., Vol. 54, pp. 70-81, Trans Tech Publication, Switzerland , (2008)

 201 Ujwal Deole, Ron Lumia, Mohsen Shahinpoor and Michael Bermudez, Design and Test of IPMC Artificial Muscle Microgripper“, J. Micro-Nano Mechatronics , Springer Berlin / Heidelberg , DOI 10.1007/s12213-008-0004-z, June (2008)

200 M. Shahinpoor and H.J. Schneider, “ Overview of Liquid Crystal Elastomers, Magnetic Shape Memory Materials, Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes, Non-Ionic Smart Polymers and Electrorheological Fluids As Other Intelligent and Multi-Functional Materials ”, In “ Intelligent Materials”, pp. 499-513, published by Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Publishers, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road Cambridge CB4 0WF, Great Britain,1 st . edition, (2008)

199 K.J. Kim, G. Lloyd and M. Shahinpoor, “Metal Hydride As Intelligent Materials and Artificial Muscles”, In “ Intelligent Materials”, pp. 387-404, published by Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Publishers, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road Cambridge CB4 0WF, Great Britain,1 st . edition, (2008)

198 M. Shahinpoor, “Ionic Polymer Metal Nanocomposites as Intelligent Materials and Artificial Muscles”, In “ Intelligent Materials”, pp. 125-144, published by Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Publishers, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road Cambridge CB4 0WF, Great Britain,1 st . edition, (2008)

197 Ethan A. Kottke, L. D. Partridge, Mohsen Shahinpoor,” Bio-Potential Activation of Artificial Muscles”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 103-109 , (2007)

196 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Effects of Counter-ions on the Performance of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Artificial Muscles”, Biomacromolecules , accepted for publication (to appear 2008)

195 K. Choi, K. J. Kim, D. Kim, C. Manford, S. Heo and Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Performance Characteristics of Electro-Chemically Driven Polyacrylonitrile Fiber Bundle Actuators”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 563-576, July, (2006)

194 M. Shahinpoor,” Soft Plastic Robots and Artificial Muscles”,   International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems 2 (2), pp. 161-174, (2005)

193 M. Shahinpoor,” Smart Ionic Polymer Conductor Composite Materials as Multifunctional Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles”, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Materials Division (Publication) MD 100 MD, pp. 485-489, (2005)  

192 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites – IV. Industrial and Medical Applications”, ( Review Paper ), Smart Materials and Structures Int. J ., Smart Mater. Struct. Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 197-214, (2005).

191 K. Firoozbakhsh, M. S. Moneim, I.S. Yi, Y. Umeda, D. Theele, and M. Shahinpoor, “ Smart Intramedullary Rod for Correction of Pediatric Bone Deformity: A Preliminary Study”, Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research , volume 424, pp. 194-201, July (2004)

190 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites – III. Modeling and Simulation As Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators, Transducers and Artificial Muscles” ( Review Paper ), Smart Materials and Structures Int. J ., vol 13, No. 4, pp. 1362-1388, (2004)

189 M. Shahinpoor, ”Artificial Muscles”, Chapter in Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering , edited by G. Wnek and G. Bowlin, Marcel Dekker Publishers , pp. 43-52, New York, NY, (2004)

188 M. Shahinpoor, “Electroactive Ion Containing Polymers,”, Chapter in Hand Book of Smart Systems , Institute of Physics (IOP) Publication , London , England , (2004)

 187 M. Shahinpoor and A. Guran, ” Ionic Polymer-Conductor Composites (IPCC) as Biomimetric Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscles, Selected Topics in Structures and Mechatronics Systems , Editors: A. Belyaev and A. Guran, pp. 417-436, World Scientific Publishers, London, (2003)

186 M. Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymer-Conductor Composites As Biomimetic Sensors, Robotic Actuators and Artificial Muscles-A Review,”, Electrochimica Acta , Vol. 48, No. 14-16, pp. 2343-2353, (2003)

185 G.M. Lloyd, K/J/ Kim, A. Razani and M. Shahinpoor, “ Investigation of A Solar-Thermal Bio-Mimetic Metal Hydride Actuator,”, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering , Vol. 125, pp. 95-100, February (2003)

184 K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites – II. Manufacturing Techniques”, Smart Materials and Structures (SMS) , Institute of Physics Publication, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 65-79, (2003)

183 M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, and D. Leo, “Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites as Multifunctional Materials,”, Polymer Composites , Volume 24, No. 1, pp. 24-33, (2003)

182 K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor , , “Effective Diffusivity of Nanoscale Ion-Water Clusters within Ion-Exchange Membranes Determined by a Novel Mechano-Electrical Technique,”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , vol.28, No. 1, pp. 99-104, (2003)

181 M. Shahinpoor, “Mechanoelectrical Phenomena in Ionic Polymers,”, Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids , Special issue in honor of Professor Millard F. Beatty, vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 181-188, June (2003)

180 J. Tyson, T. Schmidt, M. Shahinpoor and K. Galanulis, “Biomechanics Deformation and Strain Measurements with 3D Image Correlation Photogrammetry,”, Journal of Experimental Techniques , Society for Experimental Mechanics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 32-46, (2003)

179 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Mass Transfer Induced Hydraulic Actuation in Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites”, Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures (JIMSS), Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 369-376 (2002)

178 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “ Experimental Study of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites in Various Cation Forms: Actuator Behavior”, Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, Volume 10, No. 6, pp. 423-436, (2002)

177 Moheb S. Moneim, Keikhosrow Firoozbakhsh, Abdol-Azim Mustapha, Kenna Larsen and Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Flexor Tendon Repair Using Shape Memory Alloy Suture,”, J. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 402, pp. 251-259, September (2002)

176 K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “Application of Polyelectrolytes in Ionic Polymeric Sensors, Actuators, and Artificial Muscles”, Review Chapter in Handbook of Polyelectrolytes and their Applications , edited by S. K. Tripathy, J. Kumar and H. S. Nalwa, vol. 3; Applications of Polyelectrolytes and Theoretical Models, American Scientific Publishers , Stevenson Ranch, California, USA (2002)

175 K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “A Novel Method of Manufacturing Three-Dimensional Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC's) Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscle,”, Polymer , Vol. 43/3, pp.797-802 (2002)

174 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “ Novel Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites Equipped with Physically-Loaded Particulate Electrode As Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscles,”, Actuators and Sensors A, Physical, 96 (2/3) A, 3163, pp. 125-132, (2002)

173 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “A Solid-State Soft Actuator Exhibiting Large Electromechanical Effect,”, Applied Physics Letters (APL) , vol. 80, Number 18, pp. 3445-3447, May (2002)

172 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites – I. Fundamentals,” ( Review Paper ), Smart Materials and Structures Int. J ., Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 819-833 (2001)

171 A.R. Motamedi., Blevins, F.T., Willis, M.C. , McNally, T.P., Shahinpoor, M., ”Biomechanics of the Coracoclavicular Ligament Complex and Augmentations Used in Its Repair and Reconstruction,”, AM J. SPORTS MEDICINE , vol. 28, No.3, pp. 380-384, (2000)

170 H. B. Schreyer, N. Gebhart, K. J. Kim, and M. Shahinpoor, “Electric Activation of Artificial Muscles Containing Polyacrylonitrile Gel Fibers,”, Biomacromolecules , Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 642-647, (2000)

169 M. Shahinpoor, "Ion-Exchange Membrane-Metal Composite As Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators, " Book Chapter, Chapter 12, in Polymer Sensors and Actuators , Edited by Y. Osada and D. De Rossi, Springer-Verlag-Heidelberg , pp.325-359, (2000)

168 M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “The Effect of Surface-Electrode Resistance on the Performance of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) Artificial Muscles,”, Smart Materials and Structures Int. J. , Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 543-551, (2000)

167 P. G. de Gennes ( Nobel Laureate , 1991 in Physics) , K. Okumura, M. Shahinpoor, and K. J. Kim, “Mechanoelectric Effects in Ionic Gels,”, Europhysics Letters , Vol. 50, No. 4, pp. 513-518, (2000)

166 M. Shahinpoor, "Ionic Polymer Metal Composite As Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators,", in Volume 44, Book No. 2 of Evolving and Revolutionary Technologies for the New Millenium , Edited by Leslie J. Cohen, Jerome L. Bauer and William E. Davis Published by SAMPE, pp.1950-1960, Covina, California, USA(1999)

165 M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. Simpson and J. Smith, " Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC's) As Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators,", Book Chapter 3, in Field- Responsive Polymers, American Chemical Society Publication , ACS-FRP, ACS Symposium Series 726, Edited by I.M. Khan and J. S. Harrison, Oxford University Press, pp. 25-50, (1999)

164 M. Shahinpoor and J. Lantz, "Life Cycle Analysis and Robotic Recycling of Fluorescent Lamps,", Int. J. Environ. Conscious Design & Manufacturing , Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 25- 46, (1998)

163 M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, J. Simpson and J. Smith, " Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) As Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscles-A Review", Smart Materials & Structures Int. Journal , vol. 7, pp. R15-R30, (1998)

162 K. J. Kim, M. Shahinpoor and R. Razani, "Solid Polymer Fuel Cells for the Next Century,", Int. J. Environ. Conscious Design & Manufacturing , Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 17- 46, (1998)

161 M. Shahinpoor, M., "Active Polyelectrolyte Gels As Electrically-Controllable Artificial Muscles and Intelligent Network Structure,", Book Chapter in Structronic Systems, Part II , edited by: H.S.Tzou, A. Guran, U. Gabbert, J. Tani and E. Breitbach, World Scientific Publishers , London, pp. 31-85, (1998)

160 Shahinpoor, M.," Intelligent Civil Engineering Materials and Structures Revisited,", Intelligent Civil Engineering Materials & Structures , edited by F. Ansari, A.K. Maji and Christopher Leung, Engineering Mechanics Division/ASCE, (1997)

159 E. Chen and M. Shahinpoor, “ Dynamic Analysis and Experimental Investigation of The Free-to-Contact Motion For A Flexible Link Manipulator,”, Iranian. Journal of Science & Technolog y, vol. 21, no. 3, Transaction B, (1997)

158 G. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, ” Design, Prototyping and Computer Simulation of A Novel Large Bending Actuator Made with A Shape Memory Alloy Contractile Wire,”, Smart Materials and Structures Int. Journal , vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 214-221, (1997)

157 G. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, “ A New Design for A Rotatory Joint Actuator Made with Shape Memory Alloy Contractile Wire,”, Int. J. Intelligent Materials Systems & Structures , vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 191-279, March (1997)

156 G. Biswas, H. Haftbaradaran, K. Kawamura, R. Dhingra, D. Hunkeler, J. Lantz, M. Shahinpoor, and T. Quinn, "An Environmentally Conscious Decision Support System Based on a Streamlined LCA and a Cost Residual Risk Evaluation : Fluorescent Light Bulb Case Study,", Int. J. Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing , Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 9-24, (1997)

155 M. Shahinpoor, "Active Polyelectrolyte Gels as Electrically-Controllable Artificial Muscles and Intelligent Network Structures,", Book Chapter, in Active Structures, Devices and Systems , edited by H.S. Tzou, G.L. Anderson and M.C. Natori, World Science Publishing , Lexington, Ky., (1997)

154 Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M., ”Ion-Exchange Membrane-Metal Composite Artificial Muscle Actuator Load Characterization and Modeling,”, Smart Materials Technologies , SPIE Publication No. vol. 3040, pp. 294-301, (1997)

153 Salehpoor, K., Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M.,” Some Experimental Results On The Dynamic Performance of PAN Muscles,”, Smart Materials Technologies , SPIE Publication No. vol. 3040, pp. 169-173, (1997)

152 Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, B. Joffe, S.S. Lih, M. Shahinpoor, J. Simpson, J. Smith and P. Willis, “ Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Low mass Muscle Actuators,” Smart Structures & Integrated Systems , SPIE Publication No. Vo. 3041, pp. 697-701, (1997)

151 M. Shahinpoor, M. Mojarrad and K. Salehpoor, “ Electrically Induced Large Amplitude Vibration and Resonance Characteristics of Ionic Polymeric Membrane-Metal Composites Artificial Muscles,”, Smart Structures & Integrated Systems , SPIE Publication No. Vo. 3041, pp. 829-838, (1997)

150 Wang, G. and Shahinpoor, M., ”Design for Shape Memory Alloy Rotatory Joint Actuators Using Shape memory Effect and Pseudoelastic Effect,”, Smart Materials Technologies , SPIE Publication No. vol. 3040, pp. 23-30, (1997)

149 Shahinpoor, M.," Novel Design of An Agile Dynamic Mask for Layer-Additive Rapid Prototyping,", in Advanced Manufacturing Methods, ASME-SNL-UNM-ERI Publication , ERI Press, (1997)

148 Salehpoor, K., Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M., ”Linear and Platform Type Robotic Actuators Made From Ion-Exchange Membrane-Metal Composites,”, Smart Materials Technologies , SPIE Publication No. vol. 3040, pp.192-198, (1997)

147 Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M.,” Ion-Exchange-Metal Composite Artificial Muscle Actuator Load Characterization and Modeling,”, Smart Materials Technologies , SPIE Publication No. vol. 3040, pp. 294-301, (1997)

146 J. B. Weinrach and M. Shahinpoor, “ Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing : New Research Sponsored by National Science Foundation,”, Int. J. Env. Consc. Design & Manufacturing , vol. 5, No.1, pp. 19-32, (1996)

145 M. Shahinpoor and Jeffrey Lantz, “ An Environmentally Conscious Robotically Operated Fluorescent Lamp Recycling Plant,”, Int. J. Env. Consc. Design & Manufacturing , vol. 5, No.2, pp. 37-40, (1996)

144 M. Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymeric Gels As Artificial Muscles For Robotic and Medical Applications, “ Int. Journal of Science & Technology , vol. 20, no. 1, Transaction B, pp. 89-136, (1996)

143 M. Shahinpoor, “Selected Abstracts From the 4th. International Conference on Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing,", Int. Journal of Environmentally Conscious Design & Manufacturing, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 53-75, (1996)

142 M. Shahinpoor and M.S. Thompson, "The Venus Flytrap As A Model For Biomimetic Material With Built-In Sensors and Actuators,", J. Materials Science & Engineering , vol.C2, pp. 229-233, (1995)

141 M. Shahinpoor, "Micro-Electro-Mechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels As Electrically-Controllable Artificial Muscles,", Int. J. Intelligent Material Systems , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 307-314, (1995)

140 M. Shahinpoor," Industrial Robot Mathematics: Part III-Dynamics & Control,", J. Industrial Mathematics , vol. 44, part II, pp. 53-62, (1995)

139 M. Shahinpoor, and G. Wang, "Electro-Thermo-Mechanics of SMA Fiber Bundles Embedded in An Elastic Medium,", Active Materials and Smart Structures , Edited by G.L. Anderson and Dimitris C. Lagoudas, SPIE Publication, vol. 2427, pp. 272-382, (1995)

138 A. Razani, S. Sohrabpour and M. Shahinpoor, “Thermal Modeling of Robotic Handling of Hot Objects-II", Iraniann Journal of Science & Technology , vol.18, no.2, pp.161- 172 (1994)

137 M. Shahinpoor and B.C. Chiou, “Dynamic Stability of A Force-Controlled Elastic Robot Manipulator,", Int. J. Sci. & Tech., vol. 1, no.1, pp.2-10, (1994)

136 M. Shahinpoor, and H. Pang, "Inverse Dynamics of A Parallel Manipulator,", Journal of Robotic Systems , vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 693-702, (1994)

135 M. Shahinpoor, "Continuum Electromechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels As Artificial Muscles For Robotic Applications,", Smart Materials & Structures Int. J ., vol.3, pp. 367-372, (1994)

134 M. Shahinpoor, “Micro-Electro-Mechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels as Electrically Controlled Synthetic Muscles,", Biomedical Engineering Recent Advances , Editor: J. Vossoughi, University of District of Columbia Press, Washington, D.C., April 1994, vol.1, pp.756-759, (1994)

133 M. Shahinpoor and Guoping Wang, “Electro-Thermo-Mechanics of SMA Fiber Bundles Embedded In An Elastic Medium,”, Recent Advances in Engineering Science, Soc. Engng. Sci. Publication, D. H. Allen and D. C. Lagoudas, Editors, pp. 408-412, (1994)

132 M. Shahinpoor, "Deployable Fractal Mechanisms As Smart Structures,", ASME-AMD- vol. 167, Recent Development in Stability, Vibration, and Control of Structural Systems , edited by A. Guran, vol. AMD-VOL. 167, pp. 119-126, June (1993)

131 M. Shahinpoor, and H. Pang, "Analysis of Static Equilibrium of a Parallel Manipulator,", Robotica Int. Journal, vol. 11, pp. 11-21, (1993)

130 M. Shahinpoor, “An Introduction to Smart Fractal Structures and Mechanisms,", ASME Publication DE-Vol. 58, Intelligent Structures, Materials, and Vibrations , edited by M. Shahinpoor and H.S. Tzou, Vol. DE-58, pp.67-74, (1993)

129 A. Meghdari, M. Jafarian, M. Mojarrad and M. Shahinpoor, “Exploring Artificial Muscles as Actuators for Artificial Hands,", ASME Publication DE-Vol. 58, Intelligent Structures, Materials, and Vibrations , edited by M. Shahinpoor and H.S. Tzou, Vol. DE-58, pp.21-26, (1993)

128 M. Shahinpoor, “Electro-Mechanics of Bending of Ionic Polymeric Gels as Synthetic Muscles for Adaptive Structures,", ASME Publication AD-Vol. 35, Adaptive Structures and Material Systems , edited by G.P. Carman and E. Garcia, Vol. AD-35, pp.11-22, (1993)

127 M. Shahinpoor, "Novel Applications of Ionic Polymeric Gels as Smart Materials and Artificial Muscles,", Interdisciplinary Research in Smart Materials , US Army Research Office Publications, Edited by A. Crowson & J.A. Bailey, pp.78-89, (1993)

126 M. Shahinpoor," Kinematics of A Parallel-Serial (Hybrid) Robot Manipulators", J. Robotics Systems , vol. 9, n0. 1, pp 55-62, January, (1992)

125 M. Shahinpoor, "Conceptual Design, Kinematics and Dynamics of Swimming Robotic Structures Using Ionic Polymeric Muscles,", Int. J. Smart Materials & Structures, vol.1, no.1, pp.91-94 ,(1992)

124 D. Segalman, W. Witkowski, D. Adolf and M. Shahinpoor, "Theory of Electrically Controlled Polymeric Muscles As Active Materials in Adaptive Structures,", Int. J. Smart Materials & Structures , vol.1, no.1, pp.44-54 , (1992)

3-Dimensional ManufacturingTechniques and Procedures for IPMC's as Distributed BiomimeticNano-Sensors,Nano-Transducers, Nano-Robotic Actuators and ArtificialMuscles that appeared in Polymer Journal, Vol. 43 No.3, pp.797-802,(2002)

Mathematical Modeling and NumericalSimulation of Dynamics of IPMC's as Distributed Nano-Sensors,Nano-Transducers, Nano-Actuators and Artificial Muscles that appeared inthe Journal of Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 13, No. 4, pp.1362-1388, (2004)

Industrical and Medical Applications ofIPMC as Distributed Biomimetic Nano-Senssors, Nano-Transducers,Nano-Actuators and Artificial Muscles that appeared in the Journal ofSmart Materials and Structures, vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 197-214, (2005)

Linear Irreversible Thermodynamic Modeling of Transport Phenomenaand Mechano-Electric Effects in Ionic Polymeric Artificial Muscles
On the Effects of Surface Electrodes on Artificial Muscle Performance Published in vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 543-551,Int. Journal of Smart Materials & Structures, 2000
Fundamentals of IPMC as Biomimetic Sensors, Robotic Actuators and Artificial Muscles that appeared in the Journal of Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 819-833, (2001)

Manufacturing Techniques of IPMC as Biomimetic Sensors, Robotic Actuators and Artificial Muscles that appeared in the Journal of Smart Materials and Structures, Vol.12, No. 1, pp. 65-79, (2003)


If you would like to find out how to get a copy of the following milestone Patents on Artificial Muscles, please send an e-mailto mohsen.shahinpoor@maine.edu..


If you want a complimentary copy of any of the following milestone books and edited volumes on artificial muscles send an email to
Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor:

M. Shahinpoor," Intelligent Robotic Systems : Modeling & Simulation ,", ERI Press , Albuquerque , New Mexico , second edition (2011)

M. Shahinpoor and Hans-Jörg Schneider, Editors, “ Intelligent Materials”, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Publishers, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road Cambridge CB4 0WF, Great Britain,1 st . edition, (2008)

K.J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, Guest Editors, Special Issue: Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles, and Nano-Bio 2004, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures , 2007; 18: 101, (2007)

M. Shahinpoor, K.J. Kim and Mehran Mojarrad, “ Artificial Muscles : Applications of Advanced Polymeric Nano Composites ”, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London SW15 2NU , Great Britain , 1 st . edition, (2007)

M. Shahinpoor, K.J. Kim and Mehran Mojarrad, “ Ionic Polymeric Conductor Composite Artificial Muscles ,” ERI/AMRI Press , Albuquerque , New Mexico , 2 nd . edition, (2005)

M. Shahinpoor and M. Ahghar, Editor, CD ROM Proceedings of the “ Second World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio ”, December 6-8, (2004), Albuquerque Marriott, Albuquerque , New Mexico , ERI Press (2005)

Furuya, E. Quandt, Q. Zhang, K. Inoue and M. Shahinpoor, Editors, Proceedings of the Materials Research Society (MRS) Symposium on “ Materials and Devices For Smart Systems ”, December 2003, Boston, MA., Materials Research Society (MRS) Publication volume 785 , April (2004)

M. Shahinpoor, Editor, Proceedings of the “ First World Congress on Biomimetics and Artificial Muscles ”, December 8-11, (2002), Albuquerque Convention Center , Albuquerque , New Mexico , ERI Press (2003)

M. Shahinpoor, K.J. Kim and Mehran Mojarrad, “ Ionic Polymeric Conductor Composite Artificial Muscles ,” ERI/AMRI Press , Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1 st . edition, (2004)

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If you want a complimentary copy of any of the following milestone conference proceedings papers send an email to
Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor:

Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “ Endovascular Microcatheter Equipped With Smart Distal Tip Stirrer Made With IPMC Artificial Muscles ,” to appear in the Proceedings of JSME/ASME-2011 International Conference on Materials and Processing, June 13-17, 2011, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA (2011)

Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “ Charge Modeling of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites for Dynamic Curvature Sensing”, Proceeding of SPIE 18 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , 6-10 March, 2011, San Diego, California, (2011)

Y. Bahramzadeh and M. Shahinpoor, “Characterizing of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMCs) for Sensitive Curvature Measurement”, Article No. SMASIS2010-3799 , Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems , SMASIS2010 September 28 - October 1, 2010, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

S. David Dvorak and Mohsen Shahinpoor, “A New Membrane Electrode Assembly for Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells”, extended abstract, Control/Tracking Number: 2010-137-A-FCS&E, Fuel Cell Seminar & Exposition Headquarters , c/o South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Alliance , PO Box 12302 , Columbia SC 29211, (2010)

S. David Dvorak and Mohsen Shahinpoor, “A New Membrane Electrode Assembly for Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Having a Nanocomposite Catalyst Layer”, Manuscript ID: 668938, Proc. Materials Research Society Symposium on Fuel Cells, MRS , (2010)

Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Electromechanics of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites-Fundamentals ”, 16 th . US National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics , June 27-July 2, 2010, College Park, PA ., CD ROM Proceedings, (2010)

Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Surgical Correction of Ptosis by Ionic Polyacrylonitrile Artificial Muscles ”, American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO), 56 th . Annual Conference , May 27-29, Baltimore, Md., CD ROM Proceedings, 2010

 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Artificial Muscles ”, (invited) , American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO), 56 th . Annual Conference, May 27-29, Baltimore, Md., CD ROM Proceedings, 2010

 Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Surgical Correction of Ptosis by Polymeric Artificial Muscles ”, 4th. International Conference on Artificial Muscles, 5 th . International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Nano-Bio 2009) , Seri Life Science Center, Osaka, Japan, November 25-28, CD ROM Proceedings, (2009)

Mohsen Shahinpoor, “Robotic Venus Flytrap (Dionaea Muscipula) made with IPMCs” , 4th. International Conference on Artificial Muscles, 5 th . International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Nano-Bio 2009) , Seri Life Science Center, Osaka, Japan, November 25-28, (2009)

Mohsen Shahinpoor, (invited) , “Modelling of Large Deflection of IPMC Plates ”, Special Session on “Ionic Polymer Metal Composites”, in DSC09, 2009 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference and Bath/ASME Symposium on Fluid Power & Motion Control, Theme: System Engineering, Renaissance Hollywood Hotel, October 12-14, 2009, Hollywood, California

Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Micro-catheter equipped with a biomimetic soft robotic polymeric artificial muscle distal tip bender, actuator and sensor for neurological endovascular surgery ”, Proceedings of the 22 nd . International Congress on Computer-Assisted Radiology and Surgery ( CARS 2008 ), Barcelona , Spain , June 23-28, (2008)

Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymeric Conductor Nano Composites (IPCMCs) As Distributed Nanosensors and Nanoactuators ”, Proceedings of the 3 rd . International Congress on Smart materials, Structures and Systems ( CIMTEC 2008 ), Acireale, Sicily, Italy, June 8-13, (2008)

Ron Lumia and Mohsen Shahinpoor, “IPMC Microgripper Research and Development”, Proceedings of the 4 th . International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio 2007 , Cartagena, Spain, Europe, November 6-8, (2007)

Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Recent Advances in Ionic Polymer Metal Nanocomposites As Distributed Biomimetic Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles ”, Proceedings of the 4 th . International Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio 2007 , Cartagena, Spain, Europe, November 6-8, (2007)

Mohsen Shahinpoor,“ Ionic Polymer Conductor Nano-Composites As Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators And Artificial Muscles-A review”, Mater. Res. Soc. Sympo. Proc., Vol. 949, No. 0949-C07-01, (2007)

X. Tan, D. Kim, E. Goodman and M. Shahinpoor, “A Hands-on Paradigm for EAP Education: Undergraduates, Pre-college Students, and Beyond”, Proceedings of 14 th .SPIE International Symposium on: Smart Structures and Materials & Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring ,18-23 March 2007, San Diego, California, Paper No.6524-3, (2007)

John G. Michopoulos and Mohsen Shahinpoor, ” Data-Driven Inverse Modelling of Ionic Polymer Conductive Composite Plates”,   Proceedings of the Third World Congress On Biomimetics, Artificial Muscle and Nano-Bio (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2006), May 25-28, 2006 Lausanne, Switzerland (2006)

M. Shahinpoor, ” Ionic Polymer Metal Composites As Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles-A Review ”, Proceedings of the Third World Congress On Biomimetics, Artificial Muscle and Nano-Bio (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2006), May 25-28, 2006 Lausanne , Switzerland (2006)

M. Shahinpoor, ” Electrochemically Active Artificial Muscles ”, Proceedings of the Third World Congress On Biomimetics, Artificial Muscle and Nano-Bio (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2006) , May 25-28, 2006 Lausanne , Switzerland (2006)

M. Shahinpoor, ”Electroactive Polymer Actuators For Sequential/Peristaltic Heart and Aorta Compression”, Proceedings of the Third World Congress On Biomimetics, Artificial Muscle and Nano-Bio (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2006) , May 25-28, 2006 Lausanne , Switzerland (2006)

 Ujwal Deole, Ron Lumia, Mohsen Shahinpoor,“ Design and Test of IPMC Artificial Muscle Microgripper”, Proceedings of the Third World Congress On Biomimetics, Artificial Muscle and Nano-Bio (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2006) , May 25-28, 2006 Lausanne , Switzerland (2006)

John G. Michopoulos and Mohsen Shahinpoor, ”Data-Driven Inverse Modeling of Ionic Polymer Conductor Composite Plates”, Lecture Note in Computer Science, Vol. 3992/2006, Proceedings of 6 th . International Conference , Reading , UK , May 28-31, pp. 131-138, (2006)

John G. Michopoulos and Mohsen Shahinpoor, ” Data-Driven Modeling of Multi-Field Ionic Polymer Plates ”, IMECE2005-82426, Proceedings of ASME-IMECE 2005 , ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Exposition, November 5-11, 2005, Orlando/Orange County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Orlando, Florida (2005)

M. Shahinpoor, “ Smart ionic Polymer Conductor Composite Materials As multifunctional distributed nanosensors, nanoactuators and artificial muscles” , IMECE2005-79394, Proceedings of ASME-IMECE 2005 , ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Exposition, November 5-11, 2005, Orlando/Orange County Convention & Visitors Bureau, Orlando, Florida (2005)

M. Shahinpoor ”Recent Advances In Ionic Polymer Conductor Composite Materials As Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators And Artificial Muscles”, Proceeding of SPIE 12 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , 7-10 March, 2005, San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 5759, pp. 49-63, (2005)

Zheng Chen, Xiaobo Tan, and Mohsen Shahinpoor , “ Quasi-static Positioning of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuators ”, Proceedings of the IEEE/ASME Conference on Advanced Intelligent Machatronics, pp. 60- 65, (AIM 2005) , July 24-28, Monterey, California, USA, (2005)

Colozza, A., Shahinpoor, M., Jenkins, P., Smith, C., Isaac, K. and Dalbello, T., “ Solid State Aircraft Concept Overview”,   Proceedings - 2004 NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware (EH'04) , The Computer Society Publication, pp. 318-324, (2004)

J.G. Michopolous and M. Shahinpoor, “Experimental Calibration of Non-Linear Continuum Multi-Field Ionic Polymer Plate Modeling”, Proceedings of the Second World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2004) , December 5-8, 2004, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2004)

Ethan A. Kottke, L. D. Partridge, Mohsen Shahinpoor “Bio-Potential Neural Activation of Artificial Muscles”, Proceedings of the Second World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2004) , December 5-8, 2004, Albuquerque Convention Center , Albuquerque , New Mexico , USA , (2004)

M. Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymer Conductor Composite Materials as Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles - A Review" , Proceedings of the Second World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2004) , December 5-8, 2004, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque , New Mexico , USA , (2004)

Ujwal Deole, Ron Lumia, Mohsen Shahinpoor, “ Characterization of Impedance Properties of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators ”, Proceedings of the Second World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2004) , December 5-8, 2004, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2004)

Piergiorgio Tozzi, Mohsen Shahinpoor, Daniel Hayoz and Ludwig von Segesser “Electroactive Polymers to Assist Failing Heart: The Future Is Now ”, Proceedings of the Second World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics and Nano-Bio 2004) , December 5-8, 2004, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2004)

G. Lloyd, K.J. Kim, A. Razani and M. Shahinpoor, “Thermally Driven Mechanical Actuation by Using Absorption/Desorption of Metal Hydrides: A Comprehensive Simulation”, IMECE2004-60449, Proceedings of ASME-IMECE2004 , 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Exposition, November 13-19, 2004, Anaheim Convention center/Hilton, Anaheim, California, (2004)

M. Shahinpoor, “Smart Thin Sheet Batteries Made With Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC's)”, IMECE2004-60954, Proceedings of ASME-IMECE2004 , 2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD&D Exposition, November 13-19, 2004, Anaheim Convention center/Hilton, Anaheim, California, (2004)

U. Doele, R. Lumia and M. Shahinpoor, “Grasping Flexible Objects Using Artificial Muscles Micro-Grippers”, Proceedings of the 2004 World Automation Conference (WAC 2004) , June 28-July 1, 2004, Seville, Spain, (2004)

K.J. Kim, , K. Choe, R. Samathan, J. Nam, M. Shahinpoor and J. Adams, ”Toward Nanobiomimetic Muscles: Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers”, Proceeding of SPIE 11 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , 14-18 March, 2004, San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 5385-62, pp.33-43, (2004)

M. Shahinpoor, “Ionic Polymer Conductor Composites As Distributed Nanosensors, Nanoactuators and Artificial Muscles-A Review of Recent Findings”, Proceeding of The International Conference on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, AMN-1, The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology , 9-11 February 2003, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 14-22, (2003)

K. J. Kim, J. Caligiuri and M. Shahinpoor “Contraction/Elongation Behaviour of Cation- Modified Polyacrylonitrile Fibers”, Proceeding of SPIE 10 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , 2-6 March, 2003, San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 5051-23, pp. 207-213, (2003)

J. Tyson, T. Schmidt, K. Galanulis, M. Shahinpoor, “ Full-field Deformation & Strain Measurement in Biomechanics & Biomimetics ”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

D. Soltanpour, P. Shahinpoor and M. Shahinpoor, “ Development of An Artificial Muscle Based Smart Band To Correct Refractive Errors of The Human Eye ”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

D. Soltanpour and M. Shahinpoor, “Development of A Synthetic-Muscle based Miniature Diaphragm Pump For Medical Applications ”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

R. Lumia and M. Shahinpoor, “Artificial Muscle Micro-Gripper ”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

J.G. Michopolous and M. Shahinpoor, “ Continuous Electrodynamic Estimation of Impedance Associated with Multi-Dimensional Ionic Polymeric Artificial Muscles ”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

J.G. Michopolous and M. Shahinpoor, “ Towards A Multiphysics Formulation of Electroactive Large Deflection Plates Made From Ionic Polymeric Artificial Muscles ”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

K.J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “ Electrical Activation of Contractile Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-Conductor Composite Fiber Bundles As Artificial Muscles”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

M. Shahinpoor and M. Ahghar, “ Modeling of Electrochemical Deformation in Poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) Artificial Muscles”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9- 11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

K. J. Kim, J. Caligiuri, K. Choi, M. Shahinpoor, I. D. Norris, B. R. Mattes “ Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Artificial Nano-Muscles”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

M. Shahinpoor, “ Applications of Ionic Polymer Conductor Composites (IPCC's) to Nanotechnology and Nano Robots,”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

K. Kim, J. Detweiler, G. Lloyd, M. Shahinpoor, A. Razani , “ Experimental & Theoretical Investigation of a Metal Hydride Artificial Muscle”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

M. Shahinpoor, “ Metal Hydride Artificial Muscle Systems”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

M. Shahinpoor, L.O. Sillerud and S.G. Popa, ”Smart Fiber Optic Magnetometer Array For MEG”, Proceedings of the First World Congress On Biomimetics and Artificial Muscle (Biomimetics 2002) , December 9-11, 2002, Albuquerque Convention Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, (2002)

G. Lloyd, K. J. Kim, A. Razani, and M. Shahinpoor, “Investigation of a Solar-Thermal Bio-mimetic Metal Hydride Actuator,”, Proc. Solar 2002 Conference , Reno , Nevada (2002), Proceedings of Solar Engineering 2002, vol. SED2002-1066, PP. 301-308, (2002)

M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, “Electrically Controllable Deformation Memory Effects in Ionic Polymers,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695-13, pp. 85-94, (2002)

K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “ Ionic Polymer Metal Composites in Manufacturing Techniques ”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695-26 , (March, 2002)

M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, “Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites: Fundamentals and Phenomenological Modeling,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695-36, (March, 2002)

M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, L. O. Sillerud, I. D. Norris, B. R. Mattes, “Electroactive Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Artificial Nanomuscles,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695-42, (March, 2002)

M. Shahinpoor, M. Ahghar, K. J. Kim and L. O. Sillerud, “Industrial and Medical Applications of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites as Biomimetic Sensors, Actuators, and Artificial Muscles,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695-43, (March, 2002)

M. Shahinpoor and R. Alvarez, “Simulation and Control of Iono-Elastic Beam Dynamic Deformation Model,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695- 40, (March, 2002)

M. Shahinpoor, S.G. Popa, “Recent Technology Development in Contactless Monitoring of the Electromagnetic Activities of the Human Heart and Brain,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4694-44, (March, 2002)

Heino Finkelmann and M. Shahinpoor, “Electrically-Controllable Liquid Crystal Elastomer-Graphite Composites Artificial Muscles,”, Proceeding of SPIE 9 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , San Diego, California, SPIE Publication No. 4695-53, (March, 2002)

M. Shahinpoor, ”Ionic polymer-Conductor composites (IPCC's) as Biomimetic Robotic Actuators, Sensors and Artificial Muscles,”, Proc. 8 th .Int. Conf. On New Actuators, Actuators 2002 , June 10-12, 2002, Bremen , Germany

M. Shahinpoor, “Fundamentals of Ionic Polymer Conductor Composites as Biomimetic Sensors, Soft Actuators and Artificial Muscles-A Review of Recent Findings,”, Keynote Presentation, Soft Actuators and Sensors, Proc. Of 14 th .US National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics , Virginia Tech., June 23-28, 2002

M. Shahinpoor, “Mechnoelectric Effects in Ionic Polymers,“, Special Presentation In Honor of Professor Millard F. Beatty, Contemporary Issues in Mechanics Special Symposium, Proc. Of 14 th . US National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics , Virginia Tech., June 23-28, 2002

M. Shahinpoor, ”Electrically Controllable Deformation In Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators”, Proc. of ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exhibition , New Orleans, Louisiana, November 17-22, MECE2002-39037, (2002)

B. K. Henderson, S. Lane, M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, and D. Leo, “Evaluation of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC) for Use as Near DC Mechanical Sensors,” Proceeding of AIAA Space 2001 Conference and Exposition , Albuquerque, New Mexico, AIAA 2001-4600 (August, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor, and S.G. Popa, “Smart Interactive Electronic System for Monitoring the Electromagnetic Activities of Biological Systems,”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, March 3-5, SPIE Smart Structures and Materials , Publication No.4328-37, pp.34-45, (2001)

K.M. Newbury, K. Mallavarapu, D. Leo, S. Griffin and M. Shahinpoor, “Ionic Polymer Devices for Optical Positioning Systems,”, Proceeding of AIAA Space 2001 Conference and Exposition , Albuquerque, New Mexico, AIAA 2001-4600 (August, 2001)

K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “Development of Three Dimensional Polymeric Artificial Muscles,” Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach , California , Vol. 4329-(58) (March, 2001)

K. J. Kim and M. Shahinpoor, “The Synthesis of Nano-Scale Platinum Particles-Their Role in Performance Improvement of Artificial Muscles and Fuel Cells,”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4329-(26) (March, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Fully Dry Solid-State Artificial Muscle s Exhibiting Giant Electromechanical Effect,”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4329-(58) (March, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Novel Ionic Polymeric Hydraulic Actuators,”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4329-(23) (March, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “A Novel Physically-Loaded and Interlocked Electrode Developed for Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs),” Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4329-(24) (March, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “A Mega-Power Metal Hydride Anthropomorphic Biorobotic Actuator,”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4327-(18) (March, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Design, Development, and Testing of a Multi-Fingered Mammalian Heart Compression/Assist Device Equipped with IPMC ,”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4329-(53) (March, 2001)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Nano and Micro Sensors, Actuators and Artificial Muscles Made with Ionic Polymeric Conductive Composites,”, Proceeding of NanoSpace 2001,International Conference, Exploring Interdisciplinary Frontiers In Integrated Nano/Microtechnology for Space and Biomedical applications , March 13-16, Houston Moody Gardens, (2001)

M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, S. Griffin, and D. Leo, “Sensing Capabilities of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites”, Proceeding of SPIE 8 th Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 4329-(28), March, (2001)

M. Shahinpoor," Electrically-Activated Artificial Muscles Made With Liquid Crystal Elastomers,", Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach , California , SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Publication No. SPIE 3987-27, pp. 187-192 , (2000)

M. Shahinpoor," Electromechanical Modeling of Ionic Polymer-Conductive Composite (IPCC) Artificial Muscles", Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach , California , SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Publication No. SPIE 3984-37, pp. 310-320, (2000)

M. Shahinpoor, ”Potential Applications of Electroactive Polymer Sensors and Actuators in MEMS Technologies,”, Proceedings of SPIE's 2000 Symposium on Smart Materials & MEMS , December 13-15, Melbourne, Australia, SPIE Publication No. 4234-40, pp. 450-459, (2000)

M. Shahinpoor," Electromechanical Modeling of Ionic Polymer-Conductive Composite (IPCC) Artificial Muscles", Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach , California , SPIE Smart Materials and Structures , Publication No. SPIE 3984-37, pp. 310-320, (2000)

S.G. Popa and M. Shahinpoor, "Evolution of Material Intelligence and Survival Strategies Based On Matter, Energy and Geometry", Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, SPIE Smart Materials and Structures, Publication No. SPIE 3984-35, pp. 234-243, (2000)

M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, and H. B. Schreyer, “Artificial Sarcomere and Muscle Made with Conductive Polyacrylonitrile (C-PAN) Fiber Bundles” , Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 3687, pp. 243-251 (March, 2000)

M. Shahinpoor and K. J. Kim, “Effects Counter-ions on the Performance of IPMC's,”, Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach, California, 3687, pp. 110-120 (March, 2000)

K. J. Kim, M. Shahinpoor, and A. Razani, “Preparation of IPMCs for Use in Fuel Cells, Electrolysis, and Hydrogen Sensors”, Proceedings of SPIE 7 th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials , Newport Beach , California , 3687, pp. 311-320 (March, 2000)

M. Shahinpoor, "Electro-Mechanics of Iono-Elastic Beams as Electrically-Controllable Artificial Muscles", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach , California , Publication No. SPIE 3669-12, pp. 109-121, (1999)

H. Brett Schreyer, Mohsen Shahinpoor, Kwang Kim, " Electrical activation of PAN Artificial Muscles", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach, California, Publication No. SPIE 3669-19, pp. 192-198. (1999)

Amid Keshavarzi, Mohsen Shahinpoor, Kwang J. Kim, and Jeffrey Lantz, " Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, and Rhythm Measurement Using Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites Sensors ", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach, California, Publication No. SPIE 3669-36, pp. 369-376, (1999)

L. Ferrara, M. Jaeger, A. Keshavarzi, M. Shahinpoo and E. Benzel, “ The Use of Trained Shape Memory Alloy Fixtures in Spinal Instrumentation for the Correction of Spinal Deformities”, Presented at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting (poster 368). Boston , MA , November 1999

L. Ferrara, M. Shahinpoor, K. J. Kim, B. Schreyer, A. Keshavarzi, E. Benzel and Jeffrey Lantz" Use of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMCs) As A Pressure Transducer in the Human Spine, ", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach, California, Publication No. SPIE 3669-45, pp. 394-401, (1999)

Mohsen Shahinpoor & David R. Martinez, " Smart Temperature Sensors for Food and Pharmaceutical Products", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach , California , Publication No. SPIE 3674-12, pp. 127-133, (1999)

R. Lumia and M. Shahinpoor, " Microgripper design using electro-active polymers", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach , California , Publication No. SPIE 3669-30, pp. 322-329, (1999)

T. Rashid and M. Shahinpoor, " Force Optimization of Ionic Polymeric Platinum Composite Artificial Muscles by Means of An Orthogonal Array Manufacturing Method", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach , California , Publication No. SPIE 3669-28, pp. 289-298, (1999)

K.J. Kim, M. Shahinpoor and R. Razani, "Electro-Active Polymer Materials for Solid Polymer Fuel Cells", Proceedings of SPIE/Smart Structures and Materials/Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach, California, Publication No. SPIE 3669-42, pp. 385-393, (1999)

K.J. Kim, and M. Shahinpoor, "Effect of the Surface-Electrode Resistance on the Actuation of the Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite's (IPMC) Artificial Muscles", Proceedings of SPIE/Smart Structures and Materials/Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices , Newport Beach, California, Vol. 3669-43, pp. 308-319, (1999)

Y. Bar-Cohen, S.P. Leary, M. Shahinpoor, J.O. Simpson and J. Smith, "Flexible Low- Mass Devices and Mechanisms Actuated by Electro-Active Polymers", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach, California, Publication No. SPIE 3669-38, pp. 51-56, (1999)

Y. Bar-Cohen, S.P. Leary, M. Shahinpoor, J.O. Simpson and J. Smith, "Electro-Active Polymer(EAP) Actuators for Planetary Applications", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference, March 1-5,1999, New Port Beach, California, Publication No. SPIE 3669-05, pp.57-63, (1999)

S.P. Leary, M. Shahinpoor, and Y. Bar-Cohen, "Equivalent Circuit of Ionic Polymeric Metal Composites", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach , California , Publication No. SPIE 3669-09, pp. 64-68, (1999)

C. Liu, M. Shahinpoor, and Y. Bar-Cohen, "Scaling Laws of Micro-Actuators and Potential Applications of Electro-Active Polymers in MEMS ", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 1-5, 1999, New Port Beach , California , Publication No. SPIE 3669-33, pp. 69-74, (1999)

M. Shahinpoor, "Ionic Polymer Metal Composite As Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators", Proc. 44 th . Int. SAMPE Symposium , Edited by : Dr. Leslie J. Cohen, Jerome, L. Bauer and William E. Davis, Published by SAMPE, pp. 1950-1960, May 23-27, Long Beach , California , (1999)

Shahinpoor, M., Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, J. Simpson, J. Smith, " Some Experimental Results on Ion- Exchange Polymer-Metal Composites as Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California, Publication No. SPIE 3324-37, (1998)

Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, K. Salehpoor, J. Simpson, J. Smith, and P. Willis "Low-Mass Muscle Actuators Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California Publication No. SPIE 3324-32, (1998)

K. Firoozbakhsh, M. Shahinpoor and M. Shavandi, "Mathematical Modeling of Ionic Interactions and Deformation In Ionic Polymeric Metal Composite Artificial Muscles", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego , California Publication No. SPIE 3323-66, (1998)

G. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, " Design of A Knee and Leg Muscle Exerciser Using A Shape memory Alloy Rotary Actuator", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California, Publication No. SPIE 3324-29, (1998)

Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, J. Simpson, J. Smith, " Flexible Low-Mass Robotic Arm Actuated by Electroactive Polymers (EAP)", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego , California , Publication No. SPIE 3329-07, (1998)

K. Salehpoor, M. Shahinpoor, and A. Razani, "Role of Ion Transport In Dynamic Sensing and Actuation of Ionic Polymeric Platinum Composite Artificial Muscles", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego , California , Publication No. SPIE 3330-09, (1998)

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, J. Simpson, J. Smith, "Some Experimental Results on Ion- Exchange Polymer-Metal Composites as Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California, Publication No. SPIE 3324-37, (1998)

Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, K. Salehpoor, J. Simpson, J. Smith, and P. Willis "Low- Mass Muscle Actuators Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP), ", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California Publication No. SPIE 3324-32 (1998)

G. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, " Design of A Knee and Leg Muscle Exerciser Using A Shape Memory Alloy Rotary Actuator", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego , California , Publication No. SPIE 3324-29, (1998)

Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, J. Simpson, J. Smith, " Flexible Low-Mass Robotic Arm Actuated by Electroactive Polymers (EAP)", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego , California , Publication No. SPIE 3329-07, (1998)

Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, J. Simpson and J. Smith, "Flexible, Low-Mass Robotic Arm Actuated by Electroactive Polymers and Operated Equivalently to Human Arm and Hand", Proc. Space'98-Robotics'98 Conference, Third International Conference And Exposition on Robotics for Challenging Environments, April 26-30, 1998, Albuquerque, New Mexico American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Publication, edited by L.A. Demsetz, R.H. Byrne and J.P. Weyzel , April (1998)

M. Shahinpoor, Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, J. Simpson, J. Smith, " Some Experimental Results on Ion- Exchange Polymer-Metal Composites as Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California, Publication No. SPIE 3324-37, (1998)

Y. Bar-Cohen, T. Xue, M. Shahinpoor, K. Salehpoor, J. Simpson, J. Smith, and P. Willis "Low-Mass Muscle Actuators Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)", Proc. SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , March 3-5, 1998, San Diego, California Publication No. SPIE 3324-32, (1998)

Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M., ”Ion-Exchange-Metal Composite Sensor Films”, Proceedings of 1997 SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , vol. 3042-10, San Diego , California , March (1997)

Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M., ”Electrically-Induced large Amplitude Vibration and Resonance Characteristics of Ionic Polymeric Membrane-Metal Composites”, Proceedings of 1997 SPIE Smart Materials and Structures Conference , vol. 3041-76, San Diego , California , March (1997)

Shahinpoor, M., "Heart-Assist Devices Equipped with Ionic Polymeric Noble Metal Composites (IPNMC)", Proc. First International Symposium on Advanced Bio-Materials (ISAB) , October 2-5, 1997, Montreal , Canada , (1997)

Shahinpoor, M., "Heart-Assist Devices Equipped with Ionic Polymeric Metal Composites (IPMC)", Proc. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference & Exposition , November 16-21, 1997, , Dallas , Texas (1997)

Shahinpoor, M., "Ion-Exchange Polymer-Metal Composites As Biomimetic Sensors and Actuators: Artificial Muscles", Proc., Los Alamos National Laboratories, Workshop on Self-Assembling and Biomimetic Materials , December 15-17, (1997), Los Alamos , NM (1997)

M. Shahinpoor, "Intelligent Materials and Structures Revisited", Proc. SPIE 1996 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 27-29, 1996, San Diego, California, vol. 2716, paper no. 33, (1996)

M. Mojarrad and M. Shahinpoor "Noiseless Propulsion for Swimming Robotic Structures Using Polyelectrolyte Ion-Exchange Membranes”, Proc. SPIE 1996 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 27-29, 1996, San Diego, California, vol. 2716, paper no. 27, (1996)

K. Salehpoor, M. Shahinpoor and M. Mojarrad, "Electrically Controllable Ionic Polymeric Gels As Adaptive Lenses", Proc. SPIE 1996 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 27-29, 1996, San Diego , California , vol. 2716, paper no. 18, (1996)

K. Salehpoor, M. Shahinpoor and M. Mojarrad, "Electrically Controllable Artificial PAN Muscles", Proc. SPIE 1996 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 27-29, 1996, San Diego , California , vol. 2716, paper no. 07, (1996)

M. Shahinpoor and M. Mojarrad, "Ion-Exchange Membrane-Platinum Composites As Electrically Controllable Artificial Muscles,", Proc. 1996 Third International Conference on Intelligent Materials, ICIM'96, and Third European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, pp. 1012-1017, June 1996, Lyon, France, (1996)

M. Shahinpoor, "Fast Robotic Grabbers", Proc. 1996 Third International Conference on Intelligent Materials, ICIM'96, and Third European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , pp. 1000-1005, June 1996, Lyon, France, (1996)

M. Shahinpoor, "The Ionic Flexogelectric Effect", Proc. 1996 Third International Conference on Intelligent Materials, ICIM'96, and Third European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , pp. 1006-1011, June 1996, Lyon, France, (1996)

G. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, “New Design for A Bending Muscle Actuator Made With Shape memory Alloy Contractile Wires”, Proc. SPIE 1996 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 27-29, 1996, San Diego, California, vol. 2715, paper no. 06, (1996)

G. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, “New Design for A Rotatory Joint Actuator Made With Shape Memory Alloy Contractile Wires”, Proc. SPIE 1996 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 27-29, 1996, San Diego, California, vol. 2715, paper no. 42, (1996)

M. Shahinpoor and Y. Osada, "Electrically-Induced Dynamic Contraction of Ionic Polymeric Gels", Proc. SPIE 1995 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 28-March 2, 1995, San Diego , California , vol. 2441, paper no. 46, pp. 91-98, (1995)

M. Shahinpoor, "A New Effect in Ionic Polymeric Gels: The Ionic "Flexogelectric Effect", Proc. SPIE 1995 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 28-March 2, 1995, san Diego, California, vol. 2441, paper no. 05, pp. 42-53, (1995)

M. Shahinpoor and G. Wang, "Fast Cyclic Solid Phase Transformations in Shape Memory Alloys", Proc. SPIE 1995 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 28-March 2, 1995, San Diego, California, vol. 2442, paper no. 34, (1995)

M. Shahinpoor and G. Wang, "Design, Modeling and Performance Evaluation of A Novel Large Motion Shape Memory Alloy Actuator", Proc. SPIE 1995 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 28-March 2, 1995, San Diego, California, vol. 2447, paper no. 31, (1995)

M. Shahinpoor and Y. Osada, "Heart Tissue Replacement with Ionic Polymeric Gels", Proc. 1996 ASME Winter Annual Meeting , San Francisco , California , November 12- 18, (1995)

M. Shahinpoor,” Design, Modeling and Fabrication of Micro-Robotic Actuators with Ionic Polymeric Gel and SMA Micro-Muscles”, Proc. 1995 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference , Boston , MA , September (1995)

M. Shahinpoor, "Design and Modeling of A Novel Spring-Loaded Ionic Polymeric Gel Actuator", Proc. SPIE 1994 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 94, Orlando , Florida , vol. 2189, paper no. 26,pp.255-264, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, "Microelectro-Mechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels As Synthetic Robotic Muscles", Proc. SPIE 1994 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 94, Orlando, Florida, vol. 2189, paper no. 27,pp.265-274, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, "A Novel Self-Powered pH Indicator Using Ionic Polymeric Gel Muscles", Proc. SPIE 1994 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials , February 94, Orlando , Florida , vol. 2189, paper no. 13, pp. 134-142, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, "Design and Modeling Of A Novel Fibrous Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuator", Proc. SPIE 1994 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, February 94, Orlando , Florida , vol. 2190, paper no. 68, pp.730-738, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, "Design and Modeling of An Active Crawling Robotic Annelid", Proc. SPIE 1994 North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, February 94, Orlando , Florida , vol. 2190, paper no. 69, pp.739-747, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, "Electro-Mechanics of Resilient Contractile Fiber Bundles with Applications To Ionic Polymeric Gel and SMA Robotic Actuators", Proc. 1994 IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation , vol. 2, pp.1502-1508, San Diego , California , May (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, “Electro-Thermo-Mechanics of Spring-Loaded Contractile Fiber Bundles with Applications To Ionic Polymeric Gel and SMA Actuators", Proc. 1994 Int. Conf on Intelligent Materials , ICIM'94, June 1994, Willimsburg, VA, pp. 1105-1116, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, “Active Musculoskeletal Structures Equipped with a Circulatory System and a Network of Ionic Polymeric Gel Muscles", Proc. 1994 Int. Conf on Intelligent Materials , ICIM'94, June 1994, Willimsburg , VA , pp.1079-1085, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, “Micro-Electro-Mechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels as Electrically Controlled Artificial Muscles", Proc.1994 Int. Conf on Intelligent Materials , ICIM'94, June, 1994, Willimsburg, VA, pp. 1095-1104, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, and M.S. Thompson, “The Venus Fly Trap and the Waterwheel Plant As Smart Carnivorous Botanical Structures With Built-In Sensors and Actuators", Proc. 1994 Int. Conf on Intelligent Materials , ICIM'94, June 1994, Willimsburg, VA, pp.1086-1094, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, “Applications of Smart Materials, Structures and Systems to Free Form Fabrication", Proc. 1994 Int. Conf on Intelligent Mate rials, ICIM'94, June 1994, Williamsburg, VA, pp. 1067-1078, (1994)

M.L. Wang, C. Yan, X. Wang and M. Shahinpoor, “High Sensitivity Fiber Strain Sensor for Infrastructure Monitoring", Proc. 1994 Int. Conf on Intelligent Materials , ICIM'94, June 1994, Willimsburg, VA, pp.1291-1299, (1994)

M. Shahinpoor, and G. Wang, "Electro-Thermo-Mechanics of SMA Fiber Bundles Embedded in An Elastic Medium", Recent Advances in Engineering Science, Proc. 31st. Technical Conference of the Society of Engineering Science, Symposium on Active Materials and Smart Structures , pp. 408-409, Texas A&M University, College Station Texas, October (1994)

D. Segalman, W. Witkowski, R. Rao, Doug Adolf and M. Shahinpoor, "Finite Element Simulation of the 2D Collapse of A Polyelectrolyte Gel Disk", Proc.1993 SPIE North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, February 93, Albuquerque, NM, vol. 1916, pp. 14-22, (1993)

M. Shahinpoor, "Nonhomogeneous Large Deformation Theory of Ionic Polymeric Gels in Electric and pH Fields", Proc.1993 SPIE North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials ., February 93, Albuquerque, NM, vol. 1916, pp. 40-55, (1993)

M. Shahinpoor, "A Relationship Between the Volumetric Strain and pH in Ionic Polymeric Gels", Proc.1993 SPIE North American Conference on Smart Structures and Materials ., February 93, Albuquerque, NM, vol. 1916, pp. 416-423, (1993)

M. Shahinpoor, "Microelectro-Mechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels As Artificial Muscles For Robotic Applications", Proc. 1993 IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation , Atlanta, Georgia, May 93, Vol. 2, pp.380-385, (1993)

M. Shahinpoor, "Design and Kinematics of A Novel Robotic Hand", Proc. 1993 International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics , August 93, Tokyo, Japan, vol.1, pp. 266-272, (1993)

M. Shahinpoor, “Continuum Electro-Mechanics of Ionic Polymeric Gels As Artificial Muscles for Robotic Applications", Proc. International Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering , May 2-6, 1993, Shiraz University Press, vol. 4, pp.211-218, (1993)

A.A. Tootoonchi and M. Shahinpoor, "Analysis of A Robotic Hand With Two Flexible Fingers", Proc. International Congress on Electrical Engineering, ICEE'93 , May 20-24, 1993, Tehran University Press, vol. 1, pp.200-213, (1993)

M. Shahinpoor, " An Introduction to Fractal Robot Manipulators", Proc. 14th. Conf. Ideas in Science & Electronics Symp., May 1992, Albuquerque, New Mexico, vol. 1, pp. 150-156, (1992)

M. Shahinpoor," Design and Modeling of Ionic Polymeric Gels as Artificial Muscles Used In Smart Structures", Proc,.29th. Annual Meeting of Society of Engineering Science Technical Meeting , La Jolla , California , September 14-16, (1992), pp. 267-268, (1992)

R.Rao, W. Witkowski, D. Segalman, D. Adolf and M. Shahinpoor, "Finite Element Analysis of Chemomechanical Polyelectrolytic Gels", Proc. 1992 AIChE Conference , Atlanta, Georgia, Nov., (1992)

D. Segalman, W. Witkowski, D. Adolf and M. Shahinpoor, "Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Polymeric Gels", Proc. 1st. Int. Conf. Intelligent Materials, ICIM'92 , Tsukube, Japan, July,Technomic Publishing Co., pp. 310-313, (1992)

.C. Chiou and M. Shahinpoor," Experimental & Theoretical Observation on the Dynamic Stability of A One-Link Force-Controlled Flexible Manipulator", Proc. 1991 IEEE Robotics & Automation Conf. , Sacramento, Calif.,vol.2, pp.1208-1213, April (1991)

M. Shahinpoor, " Conceptual Design, Kinematics and Dynamics of Swimming Robotic Structures Using Active Polymer Gels", Proc. ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conf. on Active Materials & Adaptive Structures , Alexandria , Va , Nov. (1991)

D. Segalman, W. Witkowski, D. Adolf and M. Shahinpoor, "Electrically Controlled Polymeric Muscles As Active Materials in Adaptive Structures”, Proc. ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conf. on Active Materials & Adaptive Structures , Alexandria , Va , Nov., (1991)

The Artificial Muscle Research Institute (AMRI) was establishedby Regents Professor Mohsen Shahinpoorat in 1996. Professor Mohsen Shahinpoor, Regents professor in the School of Engineering and School of Medicine , was the Director of the Institute. The Artificial Muscle Research Institute has now become the leading world institution in ionic polymeric artificial muscle research, development, and applications. Professor Shahinpoor has re-established the Institute as an Initiative at University of Maine. The immediate goals of the institute is to develop, design, fabricate, test, and commercialize medical and industrial and domestic products based on biomimetic electrically and/or chemically controllable polymeric artificial muscles. These muscles will be used in applications relating to industrial, medical, and domestic problems.The Artificial Muscle Research Institute (AMRI) has teamed up with The FacioScapuloHumeral Muscular Dystrophy Society (http://www.fshsociety.org)and will be actively involved in developing artificial muscle-based devicesand systems to help people with muscular problems and deficiencies and disabled individuals.
 

  • If you have any questions regarding AMRI, please contact us at: Dr. Mohsen Shahinpoor (207) 581 2143 Artificial Muscles Research Initiative
    Biomedical Engineering Laboratory
    Department of Mechanical Engineering
    The University of Maine
    Orono, ME 04469
    Tel:(207) 581 2143(W), (207) 356 5957 (Mobile), (207) 581 2379 (Fax)